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  多肉植物大多生长在热带荒漠区,那里土壤贫瘠,(大多是砾石和粗砂)只有少量的土壤和有机质,这样的土壤极具通气性,所以我们在种植多肉配置介质的时候应当尽量的接近多肉原生态环境。但是多肉的生命力其实很顽强。
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  从简单了说适合种植多肉的介质/土壤,应是疏松透气、排水良好、具一定团粒结构、能提供植物生长期所需养分的砂质壤土。配制种植多肉的介质时,应当避免过细、过小的粉尘。还有最重要的一点就是在多肉植物怎么种植文章中提到过的无菌。只要种植多肉的土壤能够保证无菌,多肉已经立于不死之地了。
  以下介绍几种常规配置多肉种植介质会用到的。
  1.园土:就是最普通的栽培土,菜园子,绿化带的土都能算是。优点,取材方便。缺点是干时表层易板结,湿时通气透水性差,不能单独使用。适合多肉指数:3

  2.腐殖土:由腐烂的植物物质以及各类有机垃圾组成的一层混合物,可用于盆栽。腐殖土是森林中表土层树木的枯枝残叶经过长时期腐烂发酵后而形成。优点:透气性能好,具有较好的保水保肥能力。缺点:时间长了要换盆土。适合多肉指数:3

  3.泥炭:又称黑土、草炭,是古代低温、湿地的植物遗体,被埋在地下,经数千万年的堆积,在气温较低、雨水较少或缺少空气的条件下,植物残体缓慢分解而形成的特殊有机物,多呈棕黄色或浅褐色。适合多肉指数:8

  3.蛭石:其主要作用是增加土壤(介质)的通气性和保水性。因其易碎,随着使用时间的延长,容易使介质致密而失去通气性和保水性,所以粗的蛭石比细的使用时间长,且效果好。适合多肉指数:3

  4.煤渣:蜂窝煤燃烧之后的残渣。煤渣是种植多肉性价比最高的种植介质,煤渣经过高温燃烧后,不带病菌,不易产生病害,含有较多的微量元素,透气性,保水力都很强,搭配或者不搭配其他介质都很合适。但是有一点要注意就是,煤渣刚开始的通常呈碱性,需要泡个几天水去碱性。适合多肉指数:8。

  5.河沙:又称素沙,是河里干净的沙,透水性能好。通常来说建筑工地的沙子就行,但是这沙子通常是海沙,也需要泡下水去碱性。适合多肉指数:8

  6.珍珠岩:是一种火山喷发的酸性熔岩,经急剧冷却而成的玻璃质岩石,因其具有珍珠裂隙结构而得名。珍珠岩的本身性质稳定,持水保肥能力强,可用来做盆栽混合物和土壤改良。适合多肉指数:8

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  以上的介质应该搭配使用效果,建议以煤渣为主,进行各种搭配,原则上就是疏松透气、排水良好。通常介质的搭配比例是无机介质:比有机介质=7:3,园土,腐殖土,泥炭这类型带有肥力的土壤是有机介质。
  顺便再介绍几种适合种植多肉植物,但是价钱上会贵点的介质。

  赤玉土:由火山灰堆积而成,是运用最广泛的一种土壤介质。这也是在日本运用最广泛的一种栽培介质。它是高通透性的火山泥,暗红色圆状颗粒,没有有害细菌,PH值呈微酸。

  日向土:是一种火山浮石,日本日向市这个地方生产的多孔而轻量型园艺用土,看上去和鹿沼土有点像,也像其他浮石一样十分干燥,是经过高温杀菌处理的轻石,能提高土壤的排水性。适合不喜欢换盆和不用换盆的植物品种,除用于盆景、仙人球类,也可以用作盆栽植物的表面装饰土,作为扦插用土的一部分也很合适。它是添加用土,用得太多或者完全用,会影响植物的稳定性。一般与赤玉土、鹿沼土混合使用效果更佳。

  桐生砂:是一种火山沙,以产地日本桐生市命名,赤褐色,质地硬,不易碎,通气性、保水性比较好。一颗根据颗粒大小分别适用于不同的园艺作物。它和赤玉土混合能提高土壤的排水性。不易粉碎,适合不喜欢换盆和不用换盆的植物品种。栽培仙人球、多肉植物、沙漠植物最合适,也可用于兰花、落叶植物。桐生砂与鹿沼土混合非常适合栽培石生花属植物。

  鹿沼土:一种罕见的物质,产于鹿沼地区的火山区,是由下层火山土生成,呈火山沙的形式,PH值呈酸性,有很高的通透性、蓄水力和通气性。鹿沼土的尺寸并不十分一致有许多孔眼。

  植金石:是一种火山石,是火山爆发之后,释放大量气体、热量,经特殊温度而形成的多孔、体轻、能迅速吸取养分、保持水分的石头,再经过高科技技术加工而成。因而其具备体轻、排水、保湿、透气性俱佳的特性。不论单独使用,或与其他基质混合使用,均可发挥极佳效果。
  还有什么需要补充的,欢迎评论。

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