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  仙人掌我们很常见,那些顶着刺的球和柱令人望而生畏,从广义上来说多肉植物植物也包括仙人掌科。但是由于仙人掌科的特性过为明显,习惯上仙人掌和多肉植物是分开称呼的。
  仙人掌与多肉植物的区别
  仙人掌类植物与其他植物最大的区别是仙人掌类植物都有一种被称为刺座的器官。刺座也称刺窝,是变态的短缩枝,刺座上可以长出叶芽、花芽和不定芽,还可以长出刺、毛、花、仔球和茎节。刺座都分布在茎上。刺座在外形上有圆形、椭圆形、心形或条形,常有稠密的毡毛,好像一个垫子。毡毛对花芽和不定芽有一定的保护作用,在花芽和不定芽幼小时,毡毛可以遮挡强烈的光,在寒冷的季节还可以起到保温的作用,就像给这些小小的嫩芽裹上了一层厚厚的棉被。刺座上还常生钩毛、丝状毛和绵毛。刺座的功能齐全,这在其他种类的植物中是不多见的。

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  仙人掌类植物的刺座和其他植物的刺有很大的区别,如人们熟悉的大戟科植物虎刺梅也有刺,但是虎刺梅的刺是与植物的皮层是一体的,而且刺上无法长出其他附属体,如果刺被伤害了有可能整株植物都会受到影响,而仙人掌类植物的刺座是单独的个体,即使刺座被切除,植物体也不会受到影响。
  仙人掌植物的特点
  叶仙人掌
  主要特征:乔木、灌木或攀援植物,叶宽而扁平(少数种类叶锥形),有刺座。人们以前用来嫁接蟹爪兰的虎刺就是叶仙人掌,它的茎干是人们熟悉的木质化的攀援茎,茎上会长出和其他植物相似的叶片,只是在叶子基部长着刺。
  代表属:叶仙人掌属、拟叶仙人掌属。
  代表种:虎刺、红花木麒麟。

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  2.仙人掌
  我国四川、云南、海南等地均有分布,原产地主要是墨西哥。
  主要特征:有叶和钩毛,叶有时很小,早落。这就是人们最常见的仙人掌,肉质扁平的茎,茎上长着尖刺。在人们心目中是最有代表性的仙人掌类植物。
  代表属:顶花麒麟掌属、麒麟掌属、仙人掌属等。
  代表种:仙人镜。

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  3.仙人柱
  主要特征:包括常见的仙人球、仙人柱。多为球状、柱状,具棱,叶退化,通常不存在;无钩毛;种子不在骨质假种皮内,褐色或黑色。
  代表属:天轮柱属、残雪柱属、近卫柱属、龙神柱属。
  代表种:密鲁天轮柱、近卫柱、残雪、巨人柱。

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